Thursday, May 28, 2009

Features that are in Exchange 2003 but not Exchange 2007

  • Access to public folders via Outlook Web Access, IMAP, or NNTP
  • Active-active clustering
  • Administrative groups
  • CDO 1.2
  • CDO for Workflow
  • Coexistence with Exchange 5.5
  • Connector and migration tools for GroupWise
  • Exchange 5.5 Event Servic

Features that are in Exchange 2007 but not in Exchange 2003

  • Archiving/Compliance
  • Mailbox Auto-discover
  • Better backup and restore
  • Unified Messaging
  • Better Anti-Spam and AV
  • CCR and LCR
  • Better calendaring and resource management
  • Transport rules

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Windows Server 2003 trusts

Windows 2003 supports six types of trusts
(although the OS doesn't support all types for all forest modes)

Tree-root trust : Windows 2003 automatically creates a transitive, two-way trust when you add a new tree-root domain to an existing forest. Tree-root trusts let every domain in different trees in the same forest implicitly trust one another.

Parent-child trust : Windows 2003 automatically creates a transitive, two-way trust when you add a child domain to an existing domain. This trust lets every domain in a particular tree implicitly trust one another.

Shortcut trust : When domains that authenticate users are logically distant from one another, the process of logging on to the network can take a long time. You can manually add a shortcut trust between two domains in the same forest to speed authentication. Shortcut trusts are transitive and can either be one way or two way.

External trust : Administrators can manually create an external trust between domains in different forests or from a Windows 2003 domain to a Windows NT 4.0 or earlier domain controller (DC). External trusts are non-transitive and can be one way or two way.

Forest trust : When two forests have a functional level of Windows 2003, you can use a forest trust to join the forests at the root. An administrator can manually create a two-way forest trust that lets all domains in both forests transitively trust each other. Forest trusts can also be one way, in which case the domains in only one of the forests would trust the domains in the other forest. Multiple forest trusts aren't transitive. Therefore, if forest A has a forest trust to forest B and forest B has a forest trust to forest C, forest A does not implicitly trust forest C.

Realm trust : An administrator can manually create a realm trust between a Windows 2003 domain and a non-Windows Kerberos 5 realm. Realm trusts can be transitive or non-transitive and one way or two way.

Windows XP Boot Process

1 : First is the POST, this stands for Power On Self Test, for the computer. This process tests memory as well as a number of other subsystems. You can usually monitor this as it runs each test. After that is complete the system will run POST for any device that has a BIOS (Basic Input-Output System). An AGP has its own BIOS, as do some network cards and various other devices.

2 : Once the POST is complete and the BIOS is sure that everything is working properly, the BIOS will then attempt to read the MBR (Master Boot Record). This is the first sector of the first hard drive (called the Master or HD0). When the MBR takes over it means that Windows is now in control.

3 : The MBR looks at the BOOT SECTOR (the first sector of the active partition). That is where NTLDR is located, NTLDR is the BOOT LOADER for Windows XP. NTLDR will allow memory addressing, initiate the file system, read the boot.ini and load the boot menu. NTLDR has to be in the root of the active partition as do NTDETECT.COM, BOOT.INI, BOOTSECT.DOS (for multi-OS booting) and NTBOOTDD.SYS (if you have SCSI adapters)

4 : Once XP is selected from the Boot Menu, NTLDR will run NTDETECT.COM, BOOT.INI and BOOTSECT.DOS to get the proper OS selected and loaded. The system starts in 16-bit real mode and then moves into 32-bit protected mode.

5 : NTLDR will then load NTOSKRNL.EXE and HAL.DLL. Effectively, these two files are windows XP. They must be located in %SystemRoot%System32.
NTLDR reads the registry, chooses a hardware profile and authorizes device drivers, in that exact order.

6 : At this point NTOSKRNL.EXE takes over. It starts WINLOGON.EXE that in turn starts LSASS.EXE, this is the program that display the Logon screen so that you can logon.

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Definitions: Exchange 2007

Availability Service

A web service that is responsible for providing free/busy information to the Outlook 2007 client and Outlook Web Access 2007 and is available as a public web service to allow third-parties to develop tools to integrate with it.

Cluster Continuous Replication (CCR)

A Exchange 2007 clustering technique that leverages MSCS however has no requirement of shared disk. To do this it is built on a Windows failover Majority Node Set (MNS) cluster and "log ships" the transaction logs to the passive node. The passive node then applies these logs to its copy of the database.

Local Continuous Replication (LCR)

An Exchange 2007 high-availability option that replicates a local storage group to another location on the same server. The intent is that this replication would be done to a second locally attached disk subsystem so that if a failure on the primary disk were to happen an administrator could manually mount the second copy of the storage group to restore service.


The smallest unit of a PowerShell command. There are over 360 cmdlets that will ship with Exchange 2007. These are usually simple task based commands such as "move-mailbox" or "new-mailbox".

Exchange 12

Exchange 12 is the internal code name for Exchange 2007. So if you see Exchange 12 referenced, you can assume that the correct name is Exchange Server 2007.

Exchange ActiveSync (EAS)

A technology created to allow for mobile devices to synchronize with an Exchange mailbox. Windows Mobile devices as well as some non-Microsoft devices are able to leverage this technology.

Exchange Management Console ("the console")

This is the Graphical MMC based console for administering Exchange, Mailboxes, contacts and distribution lists.

Exchange Management Shell (EMS, or "the shell")

This is the command line interface that uses the PowerShell technology to administer Exchange, Mailboxes, contacts and distribution lists. At RTM EMS will actually have more abilities than does the Exchange console, however many of these tasks not exposed in the console are not commonly used.

Hub Transport Role (Hub)

This role (formerly referred to as "bridgehead") handles internal transport and routing and is tightly integrated with Active Directory directory services. The Hub Transport role can also apply policies to messages to enforce compliance requirements. Unlike Exchange 2000/2003 the Hub transport does not rely on the IIS SMTP service to function.

Edge Transport Role (Edge)

This role provides antivirus and anti-spam protection for the Exchange organization at the perimeter of the network. The Edge role does not rely on Active Directory rather it uses ADAM to provide configuration information.

Mailbox Role

This server role is responsible for hosting mailbox databases. A mailbox database contains users' e-mail, calendar, contact, and task data.

Client Access Server Role (CAS)

This role enables mailbox access through Outlook Web Access, POP3, IMAP4, Outlook Anywhere (formerly known as remote procedure call [RPC] over HTTP), and Exchange Server ActiveSync. This role is similar in function to an Exchange 2000/2003 front-end but not in operation.

Managed Folders

Folders used in the Messaging Records Management (MRM) feature of Exchange Server 2007. MRM allows retention policies to be set on folder in user mailboxes.

One liner

A group of PowerShell commands that pipeline information to each other to accomplish a single task (please fix me!)

Outlook Anywhere (formerly RPC/HTTP)

A technology that encapsulates RPC communications within HTTP calls. This allows for the use of Outlook through the internet without opening all of the required RPC ports.

Outlook Web Access (OWA)

A web interface for access an Exchange mailbox. This interface can view email, calendar, voice mail, and faxes. It also provides an interface for managing Windows Mobile devices using Exchange ActiveSync.

Outlook Voice Access (OVA)

A phone interface for an Exchange mailbox. This will allow a user to call in to get his mailbox items read. These mailbox items include voice mail, email, calendar appointments.


Formerly known as codename "Monad", this is the command line shell used to administer Exchange, and is the foundation for the new generation of scripting capabilities that can be added to Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. Currently available as a free download, future versions of Microsoft Operating Systems will include PowerShell.


Server roles allow for each of the discrete functions of Exchange to be broken out into multiple services and thus servers. However a single server can run four of the roles (Mailbox, Client Access, Hub Transport, and UM) at once though this is only advisable in smaller scenarios. The roles are Hub Transport, Client Access, Edge Transport, Mailbox, and Unified Messaging.

Single Copy Cluster (SCC)

This type of clustering is the traditional Exchange clustering method. It requires a MSCS cluster and shared storage. It has support for up to eight nodes with Windows 2003 Enterprise and requires at least one passive node.

Standby Continuous Replication (SCR)

A new continuous replication option available in Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 1. This allows copies of the database to be kept on other Exchange servers or clusters for recovery. This sort of replication can work between datacenters.


Short for Unified Messaging. Exchange 2007 adds the ability to integrate Voice Mail and Email into a single place. This allows for telephone users (OVA), Web users (OWA) and MAPI users to access both email and voice mail.

Unified Messaging Role

This server role enables users to receive voice mail, e-mail, fax messages, and calendar information in their Exchange inbox; voice access to the inbox from any phone; and speech-enabled Automated Attendant functionality that allow callers to interact through touch tone menus or their voice using speech recognition.

WebReady Document Viewing

This is a feature of Outlook Web Access that will render Office 2003 (and previous) and Adobe Acrobat files in HTML for viewing on clients that do not have the appropriate viewers installed. This is an excellent feature for kiosk access to Outlook Web Access.

Monday, May 4, 2009

Domain Functional Level

Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only. The four domain functional levels, their corresponding features, and supported domain controllers are as follows:

Windows 2000 mixed (Default)
Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003
Activated features: local and global groups, global catalog support

Windows 2000 native
Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003
Activated features: group nesting, universal groups, SidHistory, converting groups between security groups and distribution groups, you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings

Windows Server 2003 interim
Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows Server 2003
Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. All domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest level increases to interim. This mode is only used when you upgrade domain controllers in Windows NT 4.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers.

Windows Server 2003
Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003
Supported features: domain controller rename, logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. User password support on the InetOrgPerson objectClass. Constrained delegation, you can redirect the Users and Computers containers.

Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4.0 or created by the promotion of a Windows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional level. Windows 2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when Windows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003.
After the domain functional level is raised, domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. For example, if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003, domain controllers that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain.

The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. Note that with each successive level increase, the feature set of the previous level is included.

Forest Functional Level
Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. Three forest functional levels, the corresponding features, and their supported domain controllers are listed below.

Windows 2000 (default)
Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003
New features: Partial list includes universal group caching, application partitions, install from media, quotas, rapid global catalog demotion, Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) in the Jet Database Engine, Improved topology generation event logging. No global catalog full sync when attributes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role.

Windows Server 2003 interim
Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4.0, Windows Server 2003. See the "Upgrade from a Windows NT 4.0 Domain" section of this article.

Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replication using Linked Value Replication, Improved Replication Topology Generation. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated. Attributes added to the global catalog. ms-DS-Trust-Forest-Trust-Info. Trust-Direction, Trust-Attributes, Trust-Type, Trust-Partner, Security-Identifier, ms-DS-Entry-Time-To-Die, Message Queuing-Secured-Source, Message Queuing-Multicast-Address, Print-Memory, Print-Rate, Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003
Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003
Activated features: all features in Interim Level, Defunct schema objects, Cross Forest Trust, Domain Rename, Dynamic auxiliary classes, InetOrgPerson objectClass change, Application Groups, 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Windows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000

After the forest functional level is raised, domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. For example, if you raise forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003, domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the forest.

Saturday, May 2, 2009

Microsoft Windows Operating system Family

We can Classify Windows Operating System into 3 Categories

1 : Desktop Operating System

2 : Client Operating System

3 : Server Operating System

Desktop Operating System

Client Operating System

Server Operating System

Windows 95/98

Windows NT Workstation

Windows NT Server

Windows ME

Windows 2000 Professional

Windows 2000 Server Family

Windows XP Home Series

Windows XP Professional

Windows Server 2003 Family

Windows Vista Home Family

Windows Vista Ultimate, Business

Windows Server 2008 Family

Windows 7

Starter, Home Series

Windows 7

Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate

Windows Server 2008 R2

Friday, May 1, 2009

Difference between Domain and Domain Controller

In Active Directory, a collection of computer, user, and group objects defined by the administrator. These objects share a common directory database, security policies, and security relationships with other domains. In DNS, any tree or subtree within the DNS namespace. Although the names for DNS domains often correspond to Active Directory domains, DNS domains should not be confused with Active Directory domains.

In an Active Directory forest, a server that contains a writable copy of the Active Directory database, participates in Active Directory replication, and controls access to network resources. Administrators can manage user accounts, network access, shared resources, site topology, and other directory objects from any domain controller in the forest.